Saving the Mary River “Punk” Turtle Mary River, South East Queensland
Since the 1990’s there has been a significant decline in juvenile Mary River Turtles (Elusor macrurus) found in the Mary River. The adult Mary River Turtles are aging, and as new generations have been unable to survive the species is at risk of extinction. This project will establish a head start population of Mary River Turtles where hatchlings will be grown in captivity. As predation occurs during their early life stage, growing the turtles to a larger size will increase their chance of survival when released.
The Mary River Turtle:
The Mary River Turtle is a unique turtle that is only found in the Mary River in South East Queensland and was formerly described in 1994. They are sometimes called the Punk Turtle due to the algae growing in its shell or head. They can stay underwater for three days by through their ability to extract oxygen from the water through a gill-like structure in its cloaca, giving rise to one of their other names, the bum-breathing turtle. Threats to the Mary River Turtle include predation of hatchlings by red foxes, wild dogs, goannas and fish, especially at the hatchling and juvenile stage of their life. They are a monotypic genus (having only one species in the genius) representing a very old lineage of turtles that has all but disappeared from the evolutionary history of Australia. Mary River Turtles take an unusually long time to mature; it has been estimated that females take 25 years, and males, 30 years to become adults.
In the 1960s and 1970s, the Mary River turtle was popular as a pet in Australia, with about 15,000 sent to shops every year during a 10-year period. They were originally known as the “penny turtle”or “pet shop turtle”. This is thought to have contributed to a decline in the species by taking out multiple generations.
The Mary River Turtle is currently listed as endangered under Queensland’s Nature Conservation Act 1992, and under the federal Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. The international conservation body IUCN lists it as endangered on the ICUN Red List. It is also listed on the Zoological Society of London’s Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered list, part of the EDGE of Existence program. It is Australia’s second-most endangered freshwater turtle species, after the Western Swamp Turtle (Pseudemydura umbrina) of Western Australia. Mary River turtles were listed amongst the world’s top 25 most endangered turtle species by the Turtle Conservation Fund in 2003.
With your support we’ll implement a head-start program where hatchlings will be grown in captivity to increase their chance of survival when released. This aims to increase the wild population of the Mary River Turtlewhich has seen a decrease of 95% over the past fifty years. As the highest rate of mortality is in hatchlings and juveniles there is a need to ensure they can survive. The project will trial a six, twelve and month trial and study.
The project will involve known nesting banks that will be physically monitors for nests. Thirty nests will then be protected with plastic mesh to protect them from predators. Prior to hatching three-hundred eggs will be collected, hatched and grown and the hatchlings cared for in a controlled environment. Three cohorts of one-hundred turtles will then be released into the river, aged zero, six and twelve months. A mark and recapture study will be conducted to measure the survival of each cohort with monitoring conducted at six and twelve months. Survival rates will be compared, and recommendations made for effective strategies that will be shared with other turtle conservation groups.
This head start project will also assist the White Troughed Snapping turtle (Critically Endangered) that is endemic to the Mary, Burnet, and Fitzroy catchments.
Urgency and action:
The population of the Mary River Turtle now consists only of aging adult turtles and show no signs of recovery. Without urgent intervention the species may become extinct as these aging individuals die out.
Ensuring the survival of hatchlings and ensuring their survival is the most important action we can take for the Mary River Turtle. Over the past two decades the protection of nests from predators has ensured thousands of hatchlings have entered the river. Nest protection alone was not an effective strategy. Research by Charles Sturt University found these hatchlings die soon after entering the river. Due to the small size of the hatchling are likely eaten by predators.
We will now trail a new technique of head starting as the solution to this problem. This involves keeping hatchlings in captivity for up to one year before release and testing to see how effective this is in reducing in-river mortality of juveniles. The study outcomes will be used to prevent the species becoming extinct in the next few decades and can then be considered for use in other river systems and for other endangered turtle species throughout Australia.
This funding from the Foundation for Australia’s Most Endangered Species Limited will:
- protect and monitor thirty nests,
- collect and incubate eggs,
- husbandry and vet checks for hatchlings,
- measure, tag and release turtles,
- recapture survey to measure effectiveness, and
- report back to FAME and its supporters.
The nonprofit organisation Tiaro and District Landcare Inc will implement this project. They have eighteen years’ experience in conserving the Mary River Turtle.
Tiaro and District Landcare Inc will work with Gidarjil Development Corporation, an Indigenous enterprise, based in Bundaberg Queensland, made up of representatives of the Gurang and the Gooreng Gooreng peoples.This project will build capacity of their rangers and the skills will be transferable and have application to turtle conservation in neighboring catchments. This project will build on the rangers’ experience in working with marine turtles.
Researchers from Charles Darwin University will oversee the project and provide technical support.